for — Starts a loop block that is usually executed for a fixed number of iterations.
Syntax in HDevelop: for Index := Start to End by Step
The for statement starts a loop block that is usually executed for a fixed number of iterations. The for block ends at the corresponding endfor statement.
The number of iterations is defined by the Start value, the End value, and the increment value Step. All of these parameters can be initialized with expressions or variables instead of constant values. Please note that these loop parameters are evaluated only once, namely, immediately before the for loop is entered. They are not re-evaluated after the loop cycles, i.e., any modifications of these variables within the loop body will have no influence on the number of iterations.
The passed loop parameters must be either of type integer or real. If all input parameters are of type integer, the Index variable will also be of type integer. In all other cases the Index variable will be of type real.
At the beginning of each iteration the loop variable Index is compared to the End parameter. If the increment value Step is positive, the for loop is executed as long as the Index variable is less than or equal to the End parameter. If the increment value Step is negative, the for loop is executed as long as the Index variable is greater than or equal to the End parameter.
Attention: If the increment value Step is set to a value of type real, it may happen that the last loop cycle is omitted owing to rounding errors in case the Index variable is expected to match the End value exactly in the last cycle. Hence, on some systems the following loop is not executed---as expected---for four times (with the Index variable set to 1.3, 1.4, 1.5, and 1.6), but only three times because after three additions the index variable is slightly greater than 1.6 due to rounding errors.
I:= for Index := 1.3 to 1.6 by 0.1 I := [I,Index] endfor
After the execution of the loop body, i.e., upon reaching the corresponding endfor statement or a continue statement, the increment value (as initialized at the beginning of the for loop) is added to the current value of the loop counter Index. Then, the loop condition is re-evaluated as described above. Depending on the result the loop is either executed again or finished in which case execution continues with the first statement after the corresponding endfor statement.
A break statement within the loop---that is not covered by a more internal block---leaves the loop immediately and execution continues after the corresponding endfor statement. In contrast, the continue statement is used to ignore the rest of the loop body in the current cycle and continue execution with adapting the Index variable and re-evaluating the loop condition.
Attention: The behavior of the for loop with respect to the Index variable has changed in HALCON 11: In previous versions changes to the Index variable within the loop body were ignored by the for statement. Before evaluating the loop condition the Index variable would be reset to an internal counter that was calculated by:
Index := Start + count * Stepwhere count was the number of already executed cycles.
Programs and procedures that were saved with a HALCON version prior to HALCON 11 are kept running unmodified by analyzing their for loops while loading: If the Index variable of such a for loop is modified within the loop body, the loop is set into a compatibility mode and marked accordingly. All for loops that are marked in such a way are executed using the old semantics, i.e., the Index variable is reset to the internal counter before each loop cycle to keep the old behavior. In the listing the for statement is marked by a warning triangle and the label __use_internal_index__ at the end of the line. In addition, in the operator window a warning is displayed. A check box allows to cancel the compatibility mode for the selected for loop and perform it with the new semantics. Deleting the label __use_internal_index__ in the full text editor has the same effect. However, to keep the program behavior, the body of the for loop must slightly be adapted by copying the Index variable at the begin of the loop body to a local variable. This local variable can be used and modified within the loop body at will.
In any case it is recommended to avoid modifying the Index variable of the for loop within its body because the code becomes harder to debug and the code will not be compatible to HALCON versions prior to HALCON 11.
If the for loop is stopped, e.g., by a stop statement or by pressing the Stop button, and if the PC is placed manually by the user, the for loop is continued at the current iteration as long as the PC remains within the for body or is set to the endfor statement. If the PC is set on the for statement (or before it) and executed again, the loop is reinitialized and restarts at the beginning.
Start value of the loop variable.
Default value: 1
End value of the loop variable.
Default value: 5
Increment value of the loop variable.
Default value: 1
read_image (Image, 'fabrik') threshold (Image, Region, 128, 255) connection (Region, ConnectedRegions) select_shape (ConnectedRegions, SelectedRegions, 'area', 'and', 150, 99999) area_center (SelectedRegions, Area, Row, Column) dev_close_window () dev_open_window (0, 0, 512, 512, 'black', WindowHandle) dev_display (Image) dev_display (SelectedRegions) dev_set_color ('white') for Index := 0 to |Area| - 1 by 1 set_tposition (WindowHandle, Row[Index], Column[Index]) write_string (WindowHandle, 'Area=' + Area[Index]) endfor
If the values of the specified parameters are correct, for (as an operator) returns 2 (H_MSG_TRUE). Otherwise, an exception is raised and an error code is returned.